P0335 is a flatlined crankshaft sensor, which is probably from your busted harness and not the sensor itself. It sounds like the car had at least one bad cam sensor along with the crank, causing your no-start. Now it starts on the cam sensors alone, which explains your long crank before it fires.
The top of the bellhousing is a favorite spot for rodents to gnaw, so that may be the source of your damage. Hit the whole engine box with some peppermint oil after you get it fixed, that will chase out any crittery that might be living in the fenderwells or elsewhere under the car.
Harness repair nowadays isn't the daunting problem it used to be, just get the right stuff. They're called solder-shrinks, and you can get a whole package for under $10 off eBay or Amazon:
To use them, you just strip the broken ends, slide the sleeve over one side of the broken wire, twist the broken ends together, slide the sleeve over the copper, then heat the sleeve until the solder in the middle melts. Presto, waterproof and permanent. If there isn't enough slack to twist the ends, use two shrinks and add a few inches of new wire. Those shrinks are God's gift to good wire repair, they make short work out of all sorts of wiring problems that used to need special tools and professional attention.