The brake booster has no fluid inside of it, and will not affect whether or not you can bleed the brakes.
You can check if your booster has a vacuum leak by pressing the brakes, turning the car off with the brakes still pressed, and seeing if the pedal pushes back on your foot. If so, the vacuum level in the booster is decreasing after the car shuts off (which should not happen). If the pedal stays down, it's good to go.
The only thing the brake booster does is to reduce the amount of effort required to actuate the brakes. If it's not working properly, it takes (a lot) more effort, but you should still be able to slow down.
And I'm not sure what you mean by the cylinder doesn't have a bleeder. Is it missing, or just replaced with some non-bleeder screw? If the system holds pressure at all, then it's at least not _open_, which is good. You could just replace all the bleed screws with new ones, or with ones from junkyard trucks. But it's hard to say without getting a better idea of what's actually going on.