Nissan Paint Incident Identification Manual

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Nissan Paint Incident Identification Manual

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:29 pm



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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:34 pm

INSPECTION PROCEDURES
To ensure accurate inspection results follow these procedures and guidelines whenever inspecting a vehicle.

WASH THE VEHICLE
It is very difficult to diagnose an imperfection on the paint surface when the vehicle is dirty. Cleaning the vehicle before inspection will allow a much more accurate appraisal to be made. However, in some cases, such as with bird droppings, it is a good idea to identify the location of the bird drop with a drawing or picture before washing the vehicle to assist in determining the cause of the paint damage.

Note: Use of harsh chemicals and/or cleaning solutions not approved or distributed for use on automotive finishes should be avoided. The use of abrasive compounds can cause premature aging of the paint surface.

UTILIZE PROPER LIGHTING
Diagnosing many paint imperfections relies on noticing subtle differences in paint color. Stains, color mismatch or other marks may be hidden or enhanced by certain lighting conditions. Examine the vehicle in both strong sunlight and indoors under fluorescent lighting. Inspection may be easier using a hand held 500-watt halogen lamp or a hand held fluorescent lamp to identify paint incidents. It also helps to magnify the paint incidents when inspecting the vehicle. This can be easily done with an 8X and 30X illuminated magnifier, or an equivalent regular magnifying glass. Using “color corrected” fluorescent lighting is also helpful for accurate diagnosis.

VIEW THE PAINT CORRECTLY
When analyzing an incident, be sure to look at the vehicle from at least three angles.
Image

DOCUMENTATION
It is important to document your findings. The best way to do this is to use photographs and take notes.

USE A SIZE REFERENCE
Many incidents can be correctly identified by their size. It is especially helpful on close-up photographs to include a size reference such as a ruler, a coin, or the tip of a pen or pencil to help show the size of the incident.

RULER/MEASURING TAPE
As mentioned above, using a ruler comes in handy to determine the size of incidents (either a mm or an inch rule will do). Some inspectors carry a soft magnetic ruler that can affix to vertical surfaces for reference markings. A cloth measuring tape can also be used. Avoid using a standard metal measuring tape that can scratch the vehicle surface during inspection.

TAPE TEST
A tape test should be performed when paint peeling is suspected to confirm that the peeling is a result of lack of adhesion. It is performed by applying 3M 48 mm wide automotive masking tape over the suspected area, then pulling back the tape. If the tape removes additional paint it is likely that the paint is peeling. If no paint is removed, or if only small flecks of paint are removed, the incident is more likely a chip, scrape, or a scratch. The tape test also works with suspected clearcoat peeling. The tape test should be performed using a standard 3M 48 mm wide automotive masking tape available at any auto paint jobber.

PAINT THICKNESS TEST
If a high thickness or thin paint is suspected it is a good indicator of a previous repair. A paint thickness gauge is a useful tool to measure the paint thickness for determining if a vehicle has been repainted. There are two types of paint thickness gauge tools available, either magnetic or electronic. An acceptable thickness for most painted surfaces which is representative of factory paint is 3.5 to 6 mils (87 to 150 microns). A paint thickness of over 10 mils is a sign the vehicle has been repainted. A mil equals 1/1,000th of an inch, which is about the thickness of an average plastic garbage bag, or a piece of aluminum foil.

VEHICLE ODOMETER READING AND AGE
The vehicle’s odometer reading is an excellent indicator of vehicle age and use. Since many paint issues are time based, the age of the vehicle is important in diagnosing problems. An incident such as peeling typically happens very soon after the vehicle is painted. If a car with 55,000 kilometres suddenly has catastrophic peeling on the bumper, it could have been improperly repainted. Similarly, incidents that can occur during the painting process such as orange peel or mottling which are present at a high mileage, are also possible repair indicators.

CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION, RUST SPOTS, HARD WATER SPOTS
When inspecting, look for similar spots on painted and unpainted parts such as mirrors, bumpers, spoilers, glass, and trim pieces. If the chemical contamination, rust, or hard water spot incident appears on two different types of parts (mirrors, bumpers), it is an indication of secondary damage, not attributed to the original factory paint finish.

INVESTIGATE
If you see an incident that doesn’t appear legitimate, (e.g. bumper peeling at 30,000 miles), investigate. Look for signs of collision repair (e.g., overspray, masking lines, etc.). Ask the previous owner or selling dealership (if available) about the vehicle’s history. By correctly identifying the cause of each incident, it will provide you with a better background on the vehicle. Often the surrounding area yields clues to the true identity of the imperfection. For example, look for pine needles and leaves in the windshield cowl area in order to determine possible tree sap damage. Bird droppings, tree sap, insect splatters, and other organic fallout can damage paint if the vehicle is not frequently cleaned or properly cared for.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:43 pm

PREVIOUS REPAIR INDICATORS
Many incidents are the result of an improperly repainted surface, and not the result of the factory paint failing. That is why it is important to look for evidence of previous repairs. Look around the suspected area for overspray marks and masking lines. Check to see if bolts and brackets have been repositioned. Look for inconsistently applied seam sealer. Also, measure the paint thickness at various points on the vehicle to see if it varies.

Note: Even if there is no visible evidence of previous repair, you should investigate the vehicle service file at your local Infiniti or Nissan Dealership for previous warranty paint claims to determine if the vehicle has been repainted.

When referring to this section, please look for the following clues to determine if a car has been repaired. Many paint incidents are created as a result of collision damage repair. Paint incidents resulting from collision repairs are not covered under the Nissan or Infiniti warranty.

REPAIR INDICATORS (LOOK FOR THESE)

Sanding Scratches
Look for rough areas where the refinisher did not sand the vehicle with fine enough grit sandpaper. Sanding scratches may have the appearance of straight scratch marks (hand sanding), or circular scratch marks (machine sanding).

Dirt in Paint
Look for tiny isolated bumps in the paint surface. Dirt in paint is a result of contamination during the painting process. These incidents usually occur during the repainting process.

Varied Paint Thickness
The thickness of paint is key to a good finish. Too much paint and the paint cracks; too little paint and the paint cannot withstand environmental abuse. If certain areas of the vehicle have thicker paint than other areas of the vehicle, they might have been repainted. The following illustration shows the different paint layers.

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Visible Paint Overspray
Look for spots of vehicle color on places they shouldn’t be such as engine components, brackets, antennas, or trim. Since the body is painted at the factory before these parts are installed, there should be no overspray present unless the vehicle has been repainted. Overspray is a common indicator of a previous repair. An example of overspray is shown below.

Image

Bracket/Bolt Repositioning
When panels are removed they have to be unbolted and this process leaves marks. Look for imprints on brackets for indication they were reattached.

Body Filler Evidence
Look for excess body filler in corners and crevices. If body filler is not properly mixed before it is applied it can change the color of the paint that is applied to that repaired area. Pinholes can also be evidence of body filler, indicating a previous repair. An example of how improperly prepared body filler has changed the vehicle paint color is shown below.

Image

Poor Seam Sealer Application
Seam sealer applied between panel seams is key to preventing rust. Look for uneven application on body seams to determine previous repairs.

Misplaced Under Hood Labels
Labels under the hood have specific positions and alignments. If the labels are not aligned or missing, then the hood might have been replaced. If the labels are not present, the part or panel could also be a replacement.

Glossy Paint Under Hood/Deck Lid
Look to see if the paint on the underside of the hood or deck lid has a glossy finish. Sometimes body shops will use the same paint to cover both sides of the hood or deck lid to save time. If the underside of the hood or deck lid is glossy like the rest of the vehicle, a repaint job has been performed. The factory applies a non-metallic color-keyed satin-finish primer to the underside of the hood and the deck lid of all vehicles.

Clearcoat Application On Non-clearcoat Vehicles
Some Nissan vehicles do not have a clearcoat applied at the factory. If a non-clearcoat vehicle has clearcoat applied it is a sign that it has been repainted. Non-clearcoat vehicles are:

• Solid Black - Prior to 1999 - Altima, Sentra, Truck, and Frontier.
• Solid White - Altima, Sentra, Truck, Frontier, Xterra, and Pathfinder.


Catastrophic Peeling
Look for simultaneous peeling from different areas of a body panel. You may be able to remove a large amount of paint with the tape test. This incident commonly occurs on bumpers that have not been properly refinished. Catastrophic peeling is rarely seen on a vehicle with factory paint.

Peeling at Stress Concentration Areas
Paint, especially clearcoat, begins to peel at panel edges and around areas like door handles or key cylinders if it wasn’t applied correctly. During the repainting process, key cylinders, door handles, antennas, and moldings are often not removed. If the paint has an open edge that is delaminating or peeling, this is a sign the panel has been repainted.

Image

Masking Lines
Look for areas where masking has been applied, such as around moldings or trim. During the repainting process, to save time, many trim pieces are often not removed. In the photo shown below, you can see how the paint was applied over the molding.

Image

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:45 pm

BLISTERS

Incident Description
Blisters appear as small swellings, pimples or bubbles on the surface of the paint. They are caused by improper surface preparation or moisture trapped beneath the paint surface. The size of a blister can range from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in diameter and generally occur in patches, although they may also be found in isolation.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:49 pm

BUFF MARKS

Incident Description
Buff marks, polishing marks, or swirl marks are fine scratches in the paint. The marks generally appear in a circular or swirling pattern and have a shape and size similar to a buffing pad. A reduced gloss or a 3-D holographic effect may also be noticed on the paint. A dirty buffing pad or an improper polishing procedure may cause buff marks.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:50 pm

DOOR EDGE CHIPS

Incident Description
Paint on the edge of the door will be chipped, with the primer coat or metal exposed. Impacting foreign objects when opening the door can cause this. Also, look for small chips on the doorframe.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:51 pm

STONE CHIPS

Incident Description
Small chips of damaged or broken paint film may be evidence of stone chips. Stone chips are usually caused by stones on the roadway getting thrown up by vehicles in front impacting the leading face of the vehicle (hood, bumper, grille, etc.), causing small paint chips. The small chips can vary in size from 1 to 4 mm in diameter and expose the primer or substrate surface.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:52 pm

WHEEL WELL CHIPS

Incident Description
Wheel well chips are found most prevalent on the lower rear quarter panels, lower front doors, and rocker panels where gravel is kicked up by the wheels. Look for chips on the back painted edges of wheel wells. Wheel well chips are common on vehicles driven in rural areas and in off-road conditions. In some cases, the vehicle could also have chips on the hood, fenders and bumper.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:55 pm

COLOR MISMATCH

Incident Description
Color mismatch is when adjacent body panels have slightly different coloring. Bumpers and spoilers are typical areas for potential paint color mismatch. This mainly occurs due to the paint chemistry and the painting process used on the different materials on the vehicle, (e.g. metal fender and plastic bumper fascia).

Notes: Some minor color differences between the painted bumper and sheet metal panels should be expected.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:56 pm

CRACKING

Incident Description
The paint surface is cracked, resembling a dry lakebed. The size and length of the cracks varies. The cracking can also appear as a 3-pointed star. Cracking is rarely seen on a factory paint finish.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:58 pm

CRATERS / FISH EYES

Incident Description
Craters (also called fish eyes) are small “crater-like” holes or indentations in the paint surface. Size varies from pinholes up to 10 mm in diameter. Usually the larger craters occur individually, while the smaller ones are often found in small densely packed clusters. Small impurities are often visible in the center of the crater.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 9:59 pm

DIRT IN PAINT

Incident Description
Dirt in paint looks like tiny bumps in the paint surface. It is easily felt with the hand. This is caused by particles of contaminant that stick to the paint as it is being applied and then get trapped inside. The particles are usually totally embeded in and covered by the paint film. The bumps are typically small in size from 1 to 3 mm in diameter.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:01 pm

ACID RAIN ETCH

Incident Description
Acid rain etch to exterior paint occurs from industrial or environmental contaminants, which settle on the vehicle and when combined with rain or a morning dew, form acid. If the droplets are allowed to evaporate on the vehicle, the acids concentrate and can etch the paint. The longer contaminants remain on the paint the more serious the damage. Acid rain damage looks like irregular spots, which occur from hard water residue. Craters can be felt with a fingernail where the etching has occurred. Size may vary from pinpoint to 13 mm in diameter and would be most apparent on the horizontal surfaces of the vehicle.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:02 pm

BIRD DROPPINGS

Incident Description
Bird droppings appear as white, gray or discolored irregular splotches usually about 13 to 25 mm in diameter. They are generally found on the horizontal surfaces of the vehicle. If a bird dropping was left on the paint, the chemical nature of the bird dropping may cause the paint to discolor, swell, bubble and/or crack. The damaged spot or splotch will be in the shape of the bird drop.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:04 pm

CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

Incident Description
Chemical contamination can range in size from small spots to a large affected area. A chemical contamination incident appears as an area of discolored or etched paint, which has definite edges. Damage is usually limited to one area of the vehicle, but can cover the entire vehicle.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:06 pm

HARD WATER SPOTS

Incident Description
Hard water spotting forms when rain, or water from the garden hose or lawn sprinklers dries on the paint surface. When the water evaporates, hard minerals remain and create a round white ring. The rings or spots can be irregular in shape and usually lighter in color than the surrounding surface. The size of the rings or spots is normally about 6 mm in diameter. Performing a buff and polish procedure will usually correct this incident.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:07 pm

INSECT SPOTS

Incident Description
Insect spots occur when insects impact the vehicle as it travels along the road. Look for marks with irregular shapes and discoloration on the vehicle front and leading edge panels. Insect spots occur most often in the spring and summer months, and in humid environments. Florida’s seasonal “Love Bug” is a major culprit affecting vehicles traveling on transport carriers as well as on the highways. Insect spots left on a vehicle may cause the paint surface to raise and/or crack. Size may vary from 3 to 25 mm in diameter.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:09 pm

IRON PARTICLES

Incident Description
Iron particles look like tiny orange (rust) or black colored dots or stains on the paint surface. This incident is most noticeable on white or light color vehicles. Iron particles may originate from metal processors, scrap yards and railroads. Vehicles transported by train may exhibit “rail dust” which originates from rail car wheel and track contact. The particles settle on the paint, and could become embedded, and oxidize. Iron particles can be felt by lightly running the hand over the paint. The surface will have a rough, gritty feel.

Note: In most cases, iron particles can easily be removed from the paint surface using a clay rub bar along with an acid wash procedure.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:09 pm

TREE SAP SPOTS

Incident Description
Tree sap spots appear as white or discolored circular splotches about 3 to 13 mm in diameter. Tree sap spots will generally be on horizontal surfaces, and tend to be sticky to the touch. Tree sap spots can etch and discolor the paint, and may cause the paint surface to raise, swell and/or crack. Tree sap spots usually will be found grouped together in one area on the vehicle. Tree sap spots usually occur more often in the spring.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:11 pm

BLACKOUT PANEL FADE

Incident Description
Blackout panel fade occasionally occurs only on the panels of the vehicle painted flat black. (E.g. B-pillars, grilles, and trunk lid finishers). The flat black paint may begin to fade in an area and increases with time. Edges of the faded area blend in with the original blackout paint color.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:12 pm

FADE

Incident Description
Fade or severe oxidation is an area of paint that is losing color and has an appearance that is lighter in color and/or chalky. There usually are not distinct edges on a fade incident; edges of the affected area blend in with surrounding paint. Sun and age affecting the chemical makeup of the paint can cause fade. Fade is most noticable on darker colors.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:13 pm

LOSS OF GLOSS

Incident Description
Loss of gloss appears as an area of paint that is smooth and is evenly applied, but the paint surface lacks shine and appears dull or flat in comparison with other body panels. Any mirror reflection that still can be seen in the surface is diminished.

Note: In many cases, utilizing compounding and polishing procedures on the vehicle may restore the shine.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:14 pm

MOTTLING

Incident Description
Mottling appears as a cloudy or sometimes striped effect on an area of the vehicle’s paint under certain lighting conditions. Some mottling is a result of variance in paint application of metallic paint (uneven metallic flake dispersion).

Note: Paint should be viewed in bright sunlight, or under halogen lamps or “color corrected” fluorescent lighting to see the true paint colors. Since all metallic paint exhibits mottling to some degree, only severe cases should be considered for repaint.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:16 pm

ORANGE PEEL

Incident Description
Orange peel is designed into the paint process to help hide minor surface scratches or blemishes. The paint will have a pebbled or granular appearance/ texture like the skin of an orange. All paint surfaces have some degree of orange peel. Only severe cases should be considered for a warranty claim.

Note:
• The degree of orange peel varies between horizontal and vertical surfaces; with horizontal surfaces (e.g. hood, roof, and truck) having a smoother surface than the vertical surfaces (e.g. doors, fenders).
• Areas of the vehicle painted with the factory Stone Guard Coating (SGC) should not be confused with an orange peel paint incident. SGC is a thick, flexible paint coating applied to the lower portions of the side doors and rocker panels of many vehicles. This paint coating provides
additional protection against stone chips and road debris.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:17 pm

BUMPER PEELING

Incident Description
The bumper paint will peel/flake off as it loses adhesion with the bumper primer or substrate. Bumper peeling is usually caused by improper preparation of the bumper prior to repainting. The peeling can be either localized (small single area) or in rare cases catastrophic (simultaneous peeling from different bumper areas). The tape test should easily remove the paint.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:18 pm

BUMPER SCRAPES

Incident Description
The bumper paint exhibits linear marks or scrapes where some paint is removed. The paint color from the impacted object may also be present.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:20 pm

CLEARCOAT PEELING

Incident Description
Clearcoat peeling is the peeling of the clear-paint layer from the colorcoat underneath. Performing the tape test removes no color, but the clearcoat is removed.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:22 pm

COLORCOAT PEELING

Incident Description
Colorcoat peeling involves the colorcoat layers of the paint peeling from the vehicle’s sheet metal body panels. The peeling can occur anywhere on the vehicle. Paint will likely peel off in small pieces.

Note: Colorcoat peeling is commonly the result of a panel surface not being properly prepared during previous repainting.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:24 pm

GRILLE PEELING

Incident Description
Grille peeling involves flakes of paint peeling from the grille surface. Peeling is limited only to the grille. Using the tape test can help identify poor adhesion.

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Re: Working thread

Postby audtatious » Sun Jan 09, 2011 10:25 pm

PGF STAINS

Incident Description
PGF stains can occur if moisture gets trapped under the PGF (Paint Guard Film). The moisture gets absorbed like a sponge into the paint, and may cause a temporary discoloration or a stain. Stains may occur anywhere under the PGF, but they commonly occur around the windshield washer nozzle on the hood and on the decklid. They will be noticeable immediately after the PGF is removed. The stain appears milky or whitish on dark colored vehicles and coffee- colored on light colored vehicles. It can vary in size from a dime to a clenched fist, have an irregular shape and possibly a slightly raised surface.

Formatting and image would have been lost, therefore I have taken an image of this portion of the paint incident information:

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